Theme 1: Knowledge Economy, Knowledge Management, and the Information Society
  Number of abstracts currently posted to this Theme: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
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  (Last updated: November 28th, 2005)

 
 
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  ICTs in the Development of the Project "Bogota Land of the Knowledge"  
  Jaime Francisco Acosta, Director  
  Bogota Land of the Knowledge, Bogota, Colombia  
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This initiative is an applied case of a project of regional endogenous development, with this the city of Bogotá is starting a process as land of knowledge, going through strategies between private, public players and universities in order to push development toward a new generation of issuing enterprises (START–UPS )in intensive sectors of knowledge, which could generate news jobs, incomes and richness, adopting an endogenous development with systemic vision as a model to follow, it must join the seed-bed of companies, parent companies, tech-parks, angels, funds of seed capital, funds for innovation, research and tech centers.

 
     
 

The goal is to advance gradually, implying a seed-bed of new ideas first plugged with parent companies, moving with an angels`net, funds of seed capital, funds of risk capital, funds for innovation, and a net of university tech centers of development as public as privates. An instrument of articulation will be the universities' internet pages where different players of the innovators net could be inside the seed-bed companies program and where the parents of innovative companies interact, exchange information, monitoring, and watch the evolution process.

 
     
  In this work, we will show how we got the agreement between players who had been led by the majority of Bogotá. Which ICT instruments were used to make dynamically newborn companies, which instruments in 2007 are going strong or being newly used, what other instruments could be used in 2011, and how ICTs are the key tool for the spread and appropriation of Bogotá, land of the knowledge in the social net.  
     
 

 
 
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  Knowledge Management and Development: Top Down and Bottom Up Approach  
  Anuja Sinha, MBA Student  
  Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut, India  
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With development, efficient channels of access to the information evolve in a system. A high economic standard of a population will lead to higher use of mass media and communication. There is a certain pattern of development where people develop from having access to healthy food, clean water, house, electricity etc and gradually switch over to using television, telephone, computers etc. and thus people get interlinked to the information society. We call it  “Bottom Up” model of development.

 
     
  An alternative approach of development is to directly create an interface between the information society and the underdeveloped economies. This means introducing T.V., Telephone and computers to the people who do not have proper housing, clean water or even good supply of electricity. This can be called a “Top Down” model of development.  
     
  A study of slum dwellers in the metropolises of India leads us to be convinced that the Top Down model has some strong relevance to fast economic development. Many of the slum dwellers do not have access to clean water, good house and continuous electricity, still they are interlinked to the information world in a more effective manner in comparison to the people living in remote villages. Their per capital income and literacy rate is much higher than the national average and rate of economic development is fast.  
     
  This leads us to conclude an aggressive approach towards interfacing the underdeveloped economies with mass media and information will lead to radical development in poverty alleviation in the developing world.  
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  Innovation and Competitiveness in the Information Economy: "Leapfrogging" Strategies for Developing Countries  
  Mahendhiran Nair and Mudiarasan Kuppusamy  
  School of Business, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia  
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In this paper, we examined the factors contributing to the innovative capacity of nations in the information economy. The linkage between innovation, competitiveness and standard of living in the new economy is also discussed in this paper. A statistical pattern recognition method was used to benchmark the performance of twenty-five developed and developing countries on the following factors of innovation: ICT infrastructure, intellectual capital, interaction (networking) and integrity systems. The statistical method was also used to benchmark the performance of these countries on the following dimensions: innovation (quantum and quality of research and patents), competitiveness (productivity) and standard of living (wealth generated by e-commerce and per capita income). The sample period for the empirical study was from 1995 to 2005.

 
     
 

The empirical results showed that countries that have high investment in ICT infrastructure, intellectual capital, interaction and integrity systems are at the top of the value chain in terms of innovation, competitiveness and standard of living. The study also identified countries that have “leapfrogged” in some of the dimensions mentioned above and the policies & strategies responsible for facilitating the leapfrogging process. Results from this study provide useful directions for developing countries to leapfrog to higher stages of socioeconomic development.

 
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  Leading Africa into the Knowledge Society  
  Reymond Voutier, Executive Chairman  
  eNotus International, Singapore  
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Africa faces many challenges, most flow from demanding priorities, with possibly the greatest challenge being where to start. And the driving question being – will knowledge management help Africa to be more competitive?

 
     
  To answer that question let us start with another question – why do economies need to be competitive?  
     
  Competitive economies are essential in today’s global markets, as competitiveness is the benchmark for capital growth, wealth creation and economic progress. Information, or more precisely knowledge, is becoming the new determinator for competitiveness.  
     
  How do economies become, and remain, competitive in a global market?  
     
  The key to future competitiveness will be information and knowledge. A great transition in thought and action was needed to move a country from being an agricultural-based economy to a manufacturing and industrial based economy. An even greater transition is required to take the next step to being an information and knowledge based economy. Management imperatives over the past fifty years have had to change from dealing with an age of opportunity to embracing the role of the global knowledge manager. This change will be even more critical during the next twenty years.  
     
  The transition that is underway requires:
new institutions and organizations, new political will, and new policies.
Each of these elements also require knowledge-based leadership and management.
 
     
  What is needed to support the transformation to an information and knowledge based economy?  
     
  The work of Knowledge Management Africa and projects like Linking Africa are leading the way to new models that will bring knowledge and value to economies now locked into the global competitiveness equation.  
     
 

Linking Africa is a continent-wide knowledge initiative with its roots in the Asian economic miracle. Applying approaches and concepts that were proven as part of the Asian miracle to Africa have great potential as the continent embarks on the path of knowledge management.
The Linking Africa project is the culmination of more than 25,000 man-hours of design and development, and draws on extensive experience, and far-reaching intellectual property. This large investment when coupled with business and government relationships will help create a common knowledge framework and business infrastructure for Africa in the 21st century. Linking Africa will make doing global business easier and provide the means for business organizations across Africa to participate in, and benefit from, the global economy. Such knowledge bases are needed urgently to meet the ever–more-complex information needs of governments, financiers, and business. The current interest of the G7 in Africa’s affairs has already began to focus on trade, not aid.

 
     
  Knowledge Management Africa and projects like Linking Africa are among the first actions to meet a growing need for knowledge-based economic and business intelligence required to underpin trade and investment.
This is all about competitiveness.
Nations are competitive if, under free, non-protectionist, conditions they produce goods and services that meet the global marketplace test, while expanding the real income of their citizens. To be competitive, nations must export more – be it goods, services or knowledge, and its people must receive a globally-oriented education. Nations need to be aware of technological, economic, financial and other actions and changes around the world as these all impact quickly on national policies.
How businesses become competitive.
Businesses are competitive when they produce innovative or superior-quality products or services at globally competitive prices. Businesses are competitive when they re-invest and seek increased market share rather than raise prices. Competitiveness is synonymous with long-range profit based on strategic thinking, a global perspective, and now, on access to greater knowledge.
 
     
  Newly emerging business and economic systems present a challenge to, and are driving a fundamental change in, our approach to goods and services, technology, smart growth, and wealth itself. Today, the goods and services economy and the money, credit and capital economy are moving in different directions and at different speeds. We have to forget the myth of secure national markets. The primary products economy is no longer connected to the industrial economy, having become marginal to it; production is no longer linked to employment. Assets are now more likely to be in documents than a ship’s hold.  
     
  For Africa to develop its trade and investment potential, it will need to create a truly competitive private sector, knowledge will become essential, such knowledge will assist and lead Africa into the knowledge economy and society.