Theme 12: Digital Divide - Development Policies and Action
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  (Last updated: October 18th, 2005)
 
 
 
   
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  The Program of Actualization of Teachers in Education  
  Pedro Tinoco, Executive President, Fundación Cisneros  
     
  Irene Hardy de Gómez, Director of the AME Program, Fundación Cisneros  
     
  Caracas, Venezuela  
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  The AME Program is one of the educational programs of Fundación Cisneros. Its goal is to contribute to actualize teachers of elementary schools in Latin America and the Caribbean in specific areas of knowledge with formulated courses, developed and evaluated by Universities in Spain and Latin America. The Program uses audiovisual and virtual means in its teaching and learning process and the curricular offer includes, among others, teaching of reading and writing, mathematics, art, music, ethics, environmental conservation, and health. The courses are transmitted through several free satellite television channels, or through videos to the schools or training centers for teachers. At the same time, in the virtual classroom on our web site, the teachers access the bibliographic material and do the programmed activities. In 2005, more that 200 schools or training centers will participate from Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Argentina. The Fundación Cisneros has established alliances with Ministries of Education, Private Foundations, Non Governmental Organizations, Indigenous Associations, Universities and National connectivity programs for the selection of teachers, their training in person by a facilitator in the use of computers and the Internet, as well as the follow up in situ of the Program. The Fundación Cisneros, on the other hand, provides the funds, the management, and the administrative support. A typical AME school has a medium social economic level, is financed by parents and representatives, secular in nature and urban. A typical AME teacher is a woman, with a university degree, from 0 to 10 years of teaching experience, and has little experience with Internet and Word. Since 2003, 2.444 teachers have registered and the percentage of approved teachers has increased in the last period of courses to 50,15.  
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  Public Policies Against the Digital Divide in Andalusia  
     
  José Maria Rodriguez Sánchez  
  Director General of Innovation and Public Administrtions, Innovation, Science and Business Government Office  
     
  Pilar Rodriguez López  
  General Director, Infrastructure and Technological Services, Innovation, Science and Business Government Office  
     
  Manuel Pérez Yruela  
  Professor, Spanish Council for Scientific Research,  
  and Director of the Institutie for Advanced Social Studies of Andalusia  
     
  José Manuel Robles Morales  
  Researcher, Institute for Advanced Social Studies of Andalusia, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC)  
     
  Andalusia, Spain  
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  The technological change brought about by the new information and communication technologies is key to understanding current society. Among the agents involved in bringing about this change, public institutions play an essential role. Their actions cover a wide spectrum of fields, including the promotion of technological research, the encouragement of the national and international markets, and the implementation of policies that bring citizens training, access and use of these technologies.  
     
  This paper analyses both the digital divide in Andalusia and the policies developed by the Junta de Andalucía (Andalusian Regional Government) between 2002 and 2004 regarding citizens’ access to new technologies. Given that the region of Andalusia was comparatively behind in this sense at the beginning of the period analysed, its government’s policies have been geared mainly towards promoting generalised use and access of ICTs among the general public, and towards minimising the technological divide existing within the region (demographic, economic and geographic). The Instituto de Estudios Sociales de Andalucía (Institute of Social Research of Andalusia) has monitored the implementation of these institutional policies with a view to measuring their impact and providing tools to achieve the set goals. Based on the results of these studies, this paper will analyse the evolution of the information society in Andalusia, paying special attention to the public policies addressing the digital divide in this Region, as well as providing a comparative analysis in relation to neighbouring regions.  
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  Globalisation, ICT and Developing Nations: The Main Challenges*  
  Sumit Roy, Senior Visiting Fellow  
  Department of Economics, City University of London, England  
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  The force driving globalisation in the 21st century is undoubtedly ICT. Enabling instant communication over vast distances and in real time, ICT has far reaching implications for transnational relationships. However, the core relationship between globalisation and ICT, a major area of inquiry, has been somewhat neglected and inadequately studied.  
     
  Focussing on this critical relationship this paper emphasizes that increasingly non-state institutions, as opposed to the state, are transforming economies.This demands that developing countries shape ICT which can stimulate development and usher in the information age.  
     
  The paper unfolds a comparative study of the political economies of East and South Asia [particularly India] and Africa which enables new analytical and policy insights between globalisation and ICT. The key features are:  
     
  1. Discussion of the concepts and policies underscoring the shift from state to non state institutions in furthering the impetus of globalisation as also its implications for development.  
     
  2. Exploration of the scope of different developing regions to participate in globalisation based on a comparison of their experience of growth and development-namely, the different phases of integration, disintegration, marginalisation, and re-integration into the international economy.  
     
  Investigation of the ways in which policies on ICT can be both a challenge and a unique opportunity for paving the way for development.  
     
  * This paper is based on the author’s recent book: Globalisation, ICT and Developing Nations: Challenges in the Information Age, Sage  Publications, New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London, 2005.  
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  The World Economies and Development Goals: An Architectural Policy Framework  
  Godwin Chukwudum Nwaobi, Associate Professor of Economics  
  Quantitative Economic Research Bureau, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria  
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Development is the most important challenge facing the human race but the processes driving economic development are by no means fully understood. However, the core challenge for development is to ensure productive work and a better quality of life for all the people of the World. This challenge may be daunting and it is. This paper therefore argues that a global economic architecture is imperative for the attainment of the United Nations Millennium development goals within a framework of the mutual impact of developed and developing worlds. And within the emerging new economies, development policies must focus on achieving knowledge –intensive development or e-development (with cultural inclusion).

 
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  Developing National ICT Strategy Algorithm Based on Chaos Theory  
  Muhammad Suryanegara, Lecturer  
  Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia  
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This paper proposes a method to develop National ICT Strategy based on Chaos Theory.Strategies to be structured in the analysis that National ICT is a complex system. It ranges from technical issue to social economic ones. Chaos Theory may simplify the complexity by using its parameters, mainly fractal’s term. The strategy is applied in the perspective of co-evolution reflecting the sequence of system’s action and response to environment. Through this method, we regard ICT is a complex non-linear system, and Digital conomy behaves dynamically. Then, in order to attain Digital Economy, its National ICT strategy has to be transformed underlying fractals and environment system (equilibrium, is equilibrium)

 
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  Private Investment in Professional Education, Quality Resonance and Impact in India  
  Durg Singh Chauhan, Vice Chancellor  
  Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow, India  
     
  Dhiraj Sinha, Graduate Student  
  Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom  
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The liberal economic policies of the government of India in the past decade resulted in large-scale private investment in professional education viz. management and engineering. The investors were quantity rather than quality driven which fuelled debates on the privatization of higher education.

 
     
  After a decade, things are gradually changing as the free market policies have resulted in the survival of only good institutions.  
     
  The government professional institutions in India have rigorous entrance examinations which results in a select group of brilliant students getting professional training, most of whom either immigrate to the west or change their fields resulting in no substantial value addition to the economy.  
     
  The output of higher private educational institutions in India, which mainly recruit average students have been poor in terms of global standards. However, the quality feeds well into the system whose industrial level is at a moderate stage. In other words the low quality of institution resonates with the low standards of the industry and the service network. This is quality resonance. This has ushered in high level of industrial growth and employment in the country from within. With time, the quality of the engineers and the industry would go high as the market becomes more competitive.  
     
  This is also changing the spending habits of people towards higher education and is gradually ushering in an intellectual revolution among the masses.  
     
  This leads us to conclude that the application of free market policies in higher education has strong relevance in a developing country.  
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  The Impact of Information Technology on Political and Economic Development: A Comparative Study of India and China  
  Amel Mili, PhD Candidate  
  Center for Global Change and Governance, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA  
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  The world is witnessing today a large-scale comprehensive transformation, referred to as the Information Revolution, which is driven by Information Technology.  Like the revolutions that preceded it (e.g. the Industrial Revolution), the information revolution is bringing about profound changes not only at the economic level, but also at the political, social, and cultural levels.  The impact of the Information Revolution is not uniform across countries, but varies from country to country.  Broadly speaking, it is possible to characterize the impact of Information Technology on individual countries according to two distinct criteria:  The level of development of the country; and the political system of the country.  In this paper, we discuss the impact of information technology on the political and economic evolution of developing countries, and focus on the case study of two countries in particular:  India and China.  We have selected these two countries by virtue of what they have in common, and what distinguishes between them.  
     
  Common Features.   Both India and China are large countries, with a rapidly growing population, with a low per capita income, and a limited industrial infrastructure.  
     
  Distinguishing Features.   A political distinction:  Whereas India is a pluralistic democracy, which enjoys freedom of speech and a free media, China is a one-party system, where freedom of expression is rather limited, though evolving positively.  On the economic side these country used to be very different: Whereas India is a Western-style market economy; China is a communist-style centralized economy.  
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